[Grammar] ~는대/ㄴ대/대/이래, ~냬, ~으래/래, ~쟤 (reported/quoted speech)

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~는대/ㄴ대/대/이래 (~neun-dae/~eun-dae/dae/(i)-rae) – he/she/they/someone said

~는대/ㄴ대/대/이래 ARE THE ABBREVIATION FORMS OF ~는다고 해/ㄴ다고 해/다고 해/이라고 해.

These expressions are used for reporting or quoting speech – My friend said that… She said that… ~는대/ㄴ대/대 is used to quote or report an action or description, while 이래 is used to quote or report a definitive noun or pronoun.

Basically, you would attach a verb or adjective to ~는대/ㄴ대/대, while a noun or pronoun will be attached to 이래.

Examples: 내 친구가 나중에 우리를 꼭 만난대. (내 친구가 나중에 우리를 꼭 만난다고 해.)
My friend says that he will surely meet us later.

우리 엄마가 그 남자는 의사래. (우리 엄마가 그 남자는 의사라고 해.)
My Mom says that that man is a doctor.

~냬, ~으래/래, ~쟤

~냬 (nye) – quoted or reported speech for questions

~(으)래 (eu-rae/rae) – quoted or reported speech for requests/commands (not to be confused with 이래 from earlier.)

~쟤 (jye) – quoted or reported speech for suggestions (let’s…)

Likewise for these, they are abbreviation forms of (느verb/으adjective)냐고 해/라고 해/자고 해.


이래 – 이 (be/is/was/are/were…) + 라고 해 -> used for nouns/pronouns (subjects/objects)

(으)래 – just 라고 해 -> used to request or command someone to do something, usually attached to a verb

ON TO THE EXAMPLES FOR ~냬, ~으래/래, ~쟤.

Examples: 엄마는 우리에게 어떤 음식을 먹고 싶냬. (엄마는 우리가 어떤 음식을 먹고 싶냐고 해.)
Mom asked us what kind of food we would like to eat.

아빠는 누나에게 일찍 집으로 돌아오래. (아빠는 누나에게 일찍 집으로 돌아오라고 해.)
Dad told Noona to come home earlier.

오빠는 나에게 빙수를 먹으러 가쟤. (오빠는 나에게 빙수를 먹으러 가자고 해.)
Oppa suggested that we go and eat bingsoo together.

You should have noticed that for ~냬, ~으래/래, ~쟤, we would usually add ~에게 behind whoever is receiving the question, request/command or suggestion.

That’s one way of understanding how these particles work.


달라고 is basically used to quote a request or demand.

This is quite similar to ~(으)래 as in both are referring to requests or demands.

달라고 is used instead of ~(으)래 if the verb used is 주다.

When someone asks for something and you’re quoting that person, you would use 달라고.


(학생들: 선생님, 잘 챙겨 주세요.)
학생들은 선생님에게 잘 챙겨 달라고 했어요.
The students asked the teacher to take good care of them.

(동생: 엄마, 더 밥 줘.)
동생은 엄마에게 더 밥을 달라고 해요.
My younger sibling asked Mom to give him more rice.

As you can see, adding ~에게 for 달라고 makes it easier for the reader/listener to understand the context too.

MAIN DIFFERENCE BETWEEN ~(으)라고 하다 & ~달라고 하다

You must be thinking, aren’t both referring to requests and demands? Are both interchangeable?

The main difference is that ~(으)라고 하다 is more of a demand while ~달라고 하다 is much more polite and pleading.

Another thing to note is that ~(으)라고 하다 can be used in situations like “(I/he/she/they/we said) give me” or “(I/he/she/they/we said) give me/him/her/they/us” while ~달라고 하다 can only be used in situations like “(he said) give him” or “(I said) give me”.

In other words, ~(으)라고 하다 can be used for requests/demands where the speaker is at the receiving end of the request/demand and even in cases where the speaker is requesting/demanding for someone else.

On the other hand, ~달라고 하다 can only be used to quote the speaker if he or she is at the receiving end of the request/demand.

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