[Grammar] Passive verbs

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The most basic kind of conjugation applies to verbs (active).

How about conjugated verbs into their passive forms?

There are more (complicated) rules to conjugating verbs into their passive forms.


For verbs ending with…

ㅎ, ㅌ, ㅗ, ㅏ, ㅜ, ㅡ (VOWELS)

Add 이다

Examples:
놓다 -> 놓이다 (put/placed -> be put/be placed)
쌓다 -> 쌓이다 (stack -> be stacked)
붙다 -> 붙이다 (stick -> be stuck)
보다 -> 보이다 (see -> be seen)
차다 -> 차이다 (dump -> be dumped)
바꾸다 -> 바뀌다 (change -> be changed)
쓰다 -> 쓰이다 (use/write -> be used/be written)


ㄱ, ㄷ, ㅂ AND ㄼ

Add 히다

Examples:

먹다 -> 먹히다 (eat -> be eaten)
읽다 -> 읽히다 (read -> be read)
닫다 -> 닫히다 (close -> be closed)
받다 -> 받히다 (receive/bump -> be bumped)
잡다 -> 잡히다 (catch -> be caught)
밟다 -> 밟히다 (step -> be stepped)


ㄹ, IRREGULAR ㄷ, 르

Add 리다

열다 -> 열리다 (open -> be opened)
팔다 -> 팔리다 (sell -> be sold)
듣다 -> 들리다 (hear -> be heard)
자르다 -> 잘리다 (cut -> be cut)


ㄴ, ㄶ, ㅅ, ㅁ, ㅊ

Add 기다

안다 -> 안기다 (hug/hold -> be hugged/be held)
끊다 -> 끊기다 (cut off/sever -> be cut off/be severed)
씻다 -> 씻기다 (wash/rinse -> be washed/be rinsed)
담다 -> 담기다 (put something in something -> be put into something)
쫓다 -> 쫓기다 (chase -> be chased)


There are some exceptions here and there but these are more commonly used nouns and how you can conjugate them.

The next time you see a verb conjugated in such a weird way, be sure to notice that they are in their passive form.

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